Note on Subscriber Accounting Policies The number of subscribers mentioned in our reports effectively means number of valid SIM-cards as reported by mobile operators according to their churn policy. Cellular service penetration figures are calculated based on official data reported by state statistics institutions of respective countries. Cellular service penetration in Russia and Ukraine is above 100% which means that operators combined have more active subscribers (valid SIM cards) than the number of population. The "real" or "human" penetration means a number of people who use cellular service divided by the total population of the respective country or region. Although AC&M have estimations on the subject and conduct regular end-user survey to measure human penetration, we do not publish this information as it is always a subject for additional research. Moreover, the correlation between human penetration and number of active user accounts differs from region to region. If you are interested in more information on any particular region please do not hesitate to contant us at